Hematuria is the excretion of an abnormal number of red blood cells in urine. It is frequently seen in the outpatient clinic and all potential causes must be assessed and evaluated to identify etiologies that will require further treatment. Significant hematuria may range from microscopic hematuria, defined as >3 RBC/HPF on 3 separate microscopic analyses, or gross hematuria, wherein the quantity of blood is large enough to color the urine red or brown. In conjunction with the patient’s signs and symptoms, significant hematuria will require further diagnostic evaluations to determine subsequent management and referral to a specialist.
This e-learning module aims to discuss the basics of hematuria, its common risk factors and causes, the diagnostic approach to gross hematuria and microscopic hematuria, and summarize the approach to its management.